Supernova ejecta dust masses

This is a compilation of literature values for dust mass determinations in the ejecta of 36 individual core-collapse supernovae. The list is not yet complete but is intended to be all-inclusive, so if different authors infer different dust masses from the same data, multiple points will appear on the plot at the relevant epoch. Information about each value can be seen by hovering over points in the plot, and hovering will also indicate other data points for the same object from the same paper if there are any.

Filters:

Observed evolution:

Theoretical evolution:

Epoch (days) Dust mass (M) 1.0E-7 1.0E-6 1.0E-5 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000

[save figure]

Filter:

SupernovaEpochDust mass (M)Lower limitUpper limitTechniqueCommentsReference
1ASASSN-14jb330 d0.0001--SED2019A%26A...629A..57M
2Cas A330 y0.50.40.6SED2017MNRAS.465.3309D
3Cas A330 y0.990.91.02Emission line fluxes2021arXiv210312705N
4Cas A330 y1.1--Emission line profiles2017MNRAS.465.4044B
5Crab1070 y0.240.160.56SEDAssuming silicate dust2012ApJ...760...96G
6Crab1070 y0.110.10.12SEDAssuming carbon dust2012ApJ...760...96G
7Crab1070 y0.550.50.6SEDassuming mixed carbon/silicate dust2015ApJ...801..141O
8Crab1070 y0.220.180.27SEDassuming carbon dust2015ApJ...801..141O
9Crab1070 y-0.0190.13SED2013ApJ...774....8T
10E01022000 y0.014--SED2009ApJ...700..579R
11G21.5-09870 y0.290.210.37SEDRemnant age from 2008MNRAS.386.1411B2019MNRAS.483...70C
12G29.7-03 (Kes 75)480 y0.510.380.64SEDRemnant age from 2018ApJ...856..133R2019MNRAS.483...70C
13G29.7-03 (Kes 75)480 y-0.013-SED2012ApJ...745...46T
14G54.1+0.32100 y0.3--SEDRemnant age from 2010A%26A...520A..71B (they give a range of 1800-2400 years)2017ApJ...836..129T
15G54.1+0.31500 y0.490.080.9SEDRemnant age from 2010A%26A...520A..71B (they give a range of 1800-2400 years)2018MNRAS.479.5101R
16G320.4-1.21700 y0.009--SED2021arXiv210807461M
17N494800 y0.1--SEDRemnant age from 2012ApJ...748..117P; dust mass assumes carbon grains2010A%26A...518L.139O
18N494800 y0.4--SEDRemnant age from 2012ApJ...748..117P; dust mass assumes silicate grains2010A%26A...518L.139O
19N132D2500 y0.013--SEDRemnant age from finkelstein 20062008PASJ...60S.453S
20RCW1032000 y0.18--SEDRemnant age from 1997PASP..109..990C2011AJ....142...47P
21RCW1032000 y1.1--SEDRemnant age from 1997PASP..109..990C2011ApJ...742....7A
22SN1980K30 y0.210.120.3Emission line profiles2017MNRAS.465.4044B
23SN1987A615 d0.0010.00080.0012SED2015MNRAS.446.2089W
24SN1987A615 d0.45--SED2015ApJ...810...75D
25SN1987A775 d0.45--SED2015ApJ...810...75D
26SN1987A714 d0.0002--Emission line profilesfrom [OI] 6300,63632016MNRAS.456.1269B
27SN1987A714 d5.5E-5--Emission line profilesfrom Hα2016MNRAS.456.1269B
28SN1987A775 d0.0020.00180.0022SED2015MNRAS.446.2089W
29SN1987A806 d0.0004--Emission line profilesfrom [OI] 6300,63632016MNRAS.456.1269B
30SN1987A806 d9.0E-5--Emission line profilesfrom Hα2016MNRAS.456.1269B
31SN1987A1054 d0.00075--Emission line profiles2016MNRAS.456.1269B
32SN1987A1153 d0.0030.0020.004SED2015MNRAS.446.2089W
33SN1987A1478 d0.0011--Emission line profiles2016MNRAS.456.1269B
34SN1987A1862 d0.0012--Emission line profiles2016MNRAS.456.1269B
35SN1987A2211 d0.003--Emission line profiles2016MNRAS.456.1269B
36SN1987A2875 d0.008--Emission line profiles2016MNRAS.456.1269B
37SN1987A3500 d0.0135--Emission line profiles2016MNRAS.456.1269B
38SN1987A3604 d0.017--Emission line profiles2016MNRAS.456.1269B
39SN1987A8515 d-0.40.7SED2011Sci...333.1258M
40SN1987A8515 d0.60.40.8SED2015MNRAS.446.2089W
41SN1987A25 y-0.2-SED2014ApJ...782L...2I
42SN1987A9200 d0.80.61SED2015MNRAS.446.2089W
43SN1987A9200 d0.60.40.8SED2015ApJ...800...50M
44SN1993J16 y0.120.080.15Emission line profiles2017MNRAS.465.4044B
45SN1998S346 d-0.001-SED2004MNRAS.352..457P
46SN1999em510 d-0.0001-Emission line profiles2003MNRAS.338..939E
47SN2003gd499 d0.0002--SEDAssuming smooth dust distribution2006Sci...313..196S
48SN2003gd499 d0.0017--SEDAssuming clumpy dust distribution2006Sci...313..196S
49SN2003gd499 d4.0E-5--SED2007ApJ...665..608M
50SN2003gd678 d0.0027--SEDAssuming smooth dust distribution2006Sci...313..196S
51SN2003gd678 d0.02--SEDAssuming clumpy dust distribution2006Sci...313..196S
52SN2004dj271 d2.0E-5--SEDmass assumes 0.05um grains. lower limit assumes MRN, upper limit assumes 0.1um grains2011A%26A...527A..61S
53SN2004dj866 d0.000260.00020.00032SEDmass assumes 0.05um grains. lower limit assumes MRN, upper limit assumes 0.1um grains2011A%26A...527A..61S
54SN2004dj1011 d0.000620.000480.00076SEDmass assumes 0.05um grains. lower limit assumes MRN, upper limit assumes 0.1um grains2011A%26A...527A..61S
55SN2004dj1241 d0.000360.000260.00042SEDmass assumes 0.05um grains. lower limit assumes MRN, upper limit assumes 0.1um grains2011A%26A...527A..61S
56SN2004et300 d4.0E-5--SED2009ApJ...704..306K
57SN2004et360 d6.1E-5--SED2009ApJ...704..306K
58SN2004et406 d6.1E-5--SED2009ApJ...704..306K
59SN2004et464 d6.9E-5--SED2009ApJ...704..306K
60SN2004et690 d9.9E-5--SED2009ApJ...704..306K
61SN2004et736 d0.00011--SED2009ApJ...704..306K
62SN2004et795 d0.00014--SED2009ApJ...704..306K
63SN2004et300 d3.8E-5--SEDSmooth model2011MNRAS.418.1285F
64SN2004et360 d5.6E-5--SEDSmooth model2011MNRAS.418.1285F
65SN2004et406 d6.5E-5--SEDSmooth model2011MNRAS.418.1285F
66SN2004et464 d0.000111--SEDSmooth model2011MNRAS.418.1285F
67SN2004et690 d0.000439--SEDSmooth model2011MNRAS.418.1285F
68SN2004et300 d7.6E-5--SEDClumpy model2011MNRAS.418.1285F
69SN2004et360 d0.0001--SEDClumpy model2011MNRAS.418.1285F
70SN2004et406 d0.000224--SEDClumpy model2011MNRAS.418.1285F
71SN2004et464 d0.0005--SEDClumpy model2011MNRAS.418.1285F
72SN2004et690 d0.0015--SEDClumpy model2011MNRAS.418.1285F
73SN2005ad194 d1.0E-5--SEDanalytical calculation2013A%26A...549A..79S
74SN2005ad364 d4.0E-6--SEDanalytical calculation2013A%26A...549A..79S
75SN2005af194 d0.00042--SEDAnalytical pure amorphous carbon model2013A%26A...549A..79S
76SN2005af399 d0.00016--SEDAnalytical pure amorphous carbon model2013A%26A...549A..79S
77SN2005af576 d0.00026--SEDAnalytical pure amorphous carbon model2013A%26A...549A..79S
78SN2005af576 d0.00018--SEDpure amorphous carbon MOCASSIN model2013A%26A...549A..79S
79SN2005af576 d0.00011--SED65% silicates, 35% amorphous carbon MOCASSIN model2013A%26A...549A..79S
80SN2005af772 d7.0E-5--SEDAnalytical pure amorphous carbon model2013A%26A...549A..79S
81SN2005af940 d0.00045--SEDAnalytical pure amorphous carbon model2013A%26A...549A..79S
82SN2005ip48 d1.585E-81.0E-91.175E-7Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
83SN2005ip58 d4.5E-52.0E-55.3E-5SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
84SN2005ip72 d2.884E-72.291E-98.318E-7Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
85SN2005ip99 d6.2E-52.6E-57.1E-5SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
86SN2005ip120 d3.09E-61.259E-63.162E-5Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
87SN2005ip169 d7.413E-63.09E-66.918E-5Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
88SN2005ip211 d8.3E-53.2E-59.3E-5SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
89SN2005ip413 d7.244E-61.0E-62.951E-5Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
90SN2005ip722 d0.0001887.2E-50.000209SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
91SN2005ip905 d0.0019058.128E-50.02455Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
92SN2005ip940 d0.0005--SED2010ApJ...725.1768F
93SN2005ip1565 d0.0005410.0002050.0006SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
94SN2005ip2242 d0.08710.021881.585Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
95SN2005ip3099 d0.077620.0093331.585Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
96SN2005ip4075 d0.069180.0067611.585Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
97SN2006bc550 d0.002--SEDSmooth models give 4e-4Mo2012ApJ...753..109G
98SN2006jc200 d6.9E-56.4E-57.4E-5SED2.7+0.7-0.5e-3Mo of pre-existing dust also inferred2009ApJ...692..546S
99SN2006jd9 d0.0002880.0001020.000332SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
100SN2006jd51 d0.0001667.2E-50.000204SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
101SN2006jd99 d0.000166.7E-50.000193SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
102SN2006jd204 d0.000248.0E-50.000271SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
103SN2006jd753 d0.0008720.0002860.000984SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
104SN2006jd1638 d0.0004620.0001440.000514SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
105SN2007it944 d0.0001--SEDclumpy model. earlier epochs are assumed to have significant CSM contribution2011ApJ...731...47A
106SN2007it944 d4.6E-5--SEDsmooth model. earlier epochs are assumed to have significant CSM contribution2011ApJ...731...47A
107SN2007od300 d0.00017--SEDsmooth model2010ApJ...715..541A
108SN2007od300 d0.00025--SEDclumpy model2010ApJ...715..541A
109SN2007od455 d0.00019--SEDsmooth model2010ApJ...715..541A
110SN2007od455 d0.00042--SEDclumpy model2010ApJ...715..541A
111SN2007od667 d0.00018--SEDsmooth model2010ApJ...715..541A
112SN2007od667 d0.00042--SEDclumpy model2010ApJ...715..541A
113SN2010jl87 d0.00044--SEDassuming carbon dust2018ApJ...859...66S
114SN2010jl254 d0.0049--SEDassuming silicate dust2018ApJ...859...66S
115SN2010jl254 d0.0013--SEDassuming carbon dust2018ApJ...859...66S
116SN2010jl464 d0.0007--SED2020ApJ...894..111B
117SN2010jl465 d0.0047--SEDassuming silicate dust2018ApJ...859...66S
118SN2010jl465 d0.00088--SEDassuming carbon dust2018ApJ...859...66S
119SN2010jl526 d0.00025--Emission line profiles2020ApJ...894..111B
120SN2010jl526 d0.0007--SED2020ApJ...894..111B
121SN2010jl550 d0.00080.000750.00085SED2013ApJ...776....5M
122SN2010jl621 d0.0065--SEDassuming silicate dust2018ApJ...859...66S
123SN2010jl621 d0.0014--SEDassuming carbon dust2018ApJ...859...66S
124SN2010jl844 d0.0095--SEDassuming silicate dust2018ApJ...859...66S
125SN2010jl844 d0.0022--SEDassuming carbon dust2018ApJ...859...66S
126SN2010jl87 d0.0018--SEDassuming silicate dust2018ApJ...859...66S
127SN2010jl915 d0.002--Emission line profiles2020ApJ...894..111B
128SN2010jl996 d0.003--SED2020ApJ...894..111B
129SN2010jl1286 d0.005--Emission line profiles2020ApJ...894..111B
130SN2010jl1367 d0.01--SED2020ApJ...894..111B
131SN2011ja105 d1.9E-5--SEDClumpy model. Table 5 in the paper says 1.9e-4, text makes clear this is a typo.2016MNRAS.457.3241A
132SN2011ja486 d6.4E-5--SEDClumpy model2016MNRAS.457.3241A
133SN2011ja637 d3.8E-5--SEDClumpy model2016MNRAS.457.3241A
134SN2011ja857 d0.00064--SEDClumpy model2016MNRAS.457.3241A
135SN2011ja105 d1.1E-5--SEDSmooth model2016MNRAS.457.3241A
136SN2011ja486 d3.7E-5--SEDSmooth model2016MNRAS.457.3241A
137SN2011ja637 d2.7E-5--SEDSmooth model2016MNRAS.457.3241A
138SN2011ja857 d0.00045--SEDSmooth model2016MNRAS.457.3241A
139SN2014C1624 d4.0E-62.0E-68.0E-6SEDhot component2019ApJ...887...75T
140SN2014C1624 d0.00520.00460.0059SEDwarm component2019ApJ...887...75T
141SN2014dt320 d1.0E-5--SEDType Iax supernova2016ApJ...816L..13F
142SN2017eaw197 d7.0E-6--SEDassuming carbon dust2019ApJ...873..127T
143SN2017eaw197 d0.0001--SEDassuming silicate dust2019ApJ...873..127T
144SN2017eaw295 d1.0E-5--SEDassuming carbon dust2019ApJ...873..127T
145SN2017eaw295 d0.0001--SEDassuming silicate dust2019ApJ...873..127T
146SN2017eaw498 d1.0E-5--SEDassuming carbon dust2019ApJ...873..127T
147SN2017eaw498 d0.0003--SEDassuming silicate dust2019ApJ...873..127T
148SN2018hfm66.7 d1.0E-6--Emission line profiles2022MNRAS.509.2013Z
149SN2018hfm97.2 d5.0E-6--Emission line profiles2022MNRAS.509.2013Z
150SN2018hfm182.3 d2.8E-5--Emission line profiles2022MNRAS.509.2013Z
151SN2018hfm389.4 d0.0001--Emission line profiles2022MNRAS.509.2013Z
152SN2020oi63 d1.0E-5--SEDcould be echo2021ApJ...908..232R
153SN2021krf68 d-2.0E-5-SED2022arXiv221100205R
154SNR 0540-69.3950 y-0.0010.003SEDRemnant age from 1985ApJ...291..152R (they give 800-1100 yrs)2008ApJ...687.1054W
155SNR 0540-69.3950 y0.0025--SEDRemnant age from 1985ApJ...291..152R (they give 800-1100 yrs)2020MNRAS.496.1834L

Median values in epoch decades

Epoch range (days)Median dust mass (M)
1-100.000288
10-1004.5E-5
100-1,0000.00018
1,000-10,0000.0066
10,000-100,0000.21
100,000-1,000,0000.24
1,000,000-10,000,0000.25

Epoch of first quantified dust mass

This table lists the epochs at which dust was first inferred to be present in each supernova's ejecta.

SupernovaDust first inferred (days)
SN2006jd9
SN2005ip48
SN2020oi63
SN2018hfm66.7
SN2021krf68
SN2010jl87
SN2011ja105
SN2005af194
SN2005ad194
SN2017eaw197
SN2006jc200
SN2004dj271
SN2004et300
SN2007od300
SN2014dt320
ASASSN-14jb330
SN1998S346
SN2003gd499
SN1999em510
SN2006bc550
SN1987A615
SN2007it944
SN2014C1624
median epoch = 271